Article: Theory of Everything
Rikesh Pun & Ganesh Tamang, Sc XII (2016)
While trying to understand the universe and its nature, humans have always asked childish questions about it. “Why the nature behaves as it does? What is the set of laws of nature? What is the reality of nature?”
All these questions have raised great curiosities in mankind which have encouraged them to find a set of equation which could describe the laws of nature in mathematical form. And up till date, humans have done lots of progress to understand the laws of nature.
The great German physicist ‘Albert Einstein’ has explained in his “General Theory of Relativity” that “All the laws of nature must be same for all the fundamental particles and heavenly bodies of this universe”. So, there must be a set of laws which could describe everything.
Though he was unable to complete that equation, he left something behind for others to complete it. Recently, human research on Einstein theory found that there are four fundamental forces in the nature (gravitational force, electro-magnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force) which govern all the physical forces of the nature.
To unite all these four forces into a single form was the dream of Einstein. And to fulfill this dream of Einstein, all the physicists and mathematicians are trying hard. Such combination of forces in Physics is described by another theory termed “String Theory or M-Theory”.
It is a theoretical framework in which point like particles of particle physics carrying gravitational force vibrating at different tone called ‘graviton’ in being related. But the mathematicians raised question “If such particle do exist then how would you describe its space-time febric?” It questions, if such particles must have a space to exist then in what kind of world does it exist?
As Einstein in his theory of relativity says, “space is made up of three dimensions and along with time, it makes four dimensions. So, they convince that there must be other sets of dimensions in which such particles exist. So, another set of dimensions was found and concluded that there are total eleven dimensions, which was also described mathematically.
Extra dimension means extra world and space. Then they began to question “Is our, the only universe or there are more sets of universe?” Then, with the help of M-Theory, they found other sets of universe which are called multiverse, trapped inside the brains of graviton.
General theory of relativity states that gravity can curve the space. So, it is the effect of sun gravity which has curved the space around it and in that curve, all the planets revolve around the sun, which in reality it the effect of ‘graviton’.
Nowadays, scientists are trying to find this graviton particle inside atom. In USA, there is an experimental lab known as ‘Fermilab’. In this lab, an atom smasher smashes atom by accelerating it nearly at the speed of light. They believe that if graviton particle gets bumped out of atom, it will disappear into other dimensions whose detection would be for an instant of time in the real world.
But Fermilab yet has a long way to go. So, another experimental lab called ‘CERN’ at the boarder of France and Switzerland, has built more powerful particle accelerator that the one which Femilab has. It would be seven times more powerful than that of Fermilab which could blow even the Fermilab itself. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is one of the world's largest and most respected centers for scientific research.
If ‘CERN’ will be able to detect graviton, then string theory is said to be correct which will change the prediction of the universe and scientists believe that it will be the final chapter of “Theory of Everything”.